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Accounting Ratios

To test Name of Ratio Formula Parties interested Industry norm
Liquidity and Solvency
i) Current Ratio

Current Assets
Current Liabilities

Short-term creditors, investors, money lenders & like parties 2:1
ii) Liquid/Quick/
Acid Test Ratio

Current assets – Stock – Prepaid Expenses
Current Liabilities – Bank Overdraft – Prereceived Income

-do- 1:1
iii) Absolute Liquid Ratio

Cash + Marketable securities
Quick Liabilities

-do- 1:1
iv) Proprietary Ratio

Proprietor’s Fund
Total Assets

[Proprietor’s funds = Equity Capital + Preference Capital + Reserves and Surplus + Accumulated funds – Debit balances of P & L A/c and Miscellaneous Expenses]

-do- 60% to 75%
i) Debt Equity Ratio


[Debt = Long/Short-term loans, debentures, bills, etc, Equity = Proprietor’s funds]

-do- 2:1
ii) Capital Gearing Ratio

Fixed cost funds
Funds not carrying fixed cost

[Fixed cost funds = Preference share capital, Debentures, Loans from  banks, financial institutions, other unsecured loans].

[Funds not carrying fixed cost = Equity share capital + undistributed profit – P & L A/c (Dr. Bal.) – Misc. expenses].

-do- 2:1
Profitability and management efficiency
i) Gross Profit Ratio

Gross Profit x 100
Net sales

Shareholders, Long-term Creditors, Government

20% to 30%

ii) Net Profit Ratio

Net Profit x 100
Net sales

[Net profit may be either Operating Net profit, Profit before tax or Profit after tax].

-do- 5% to 10%
iii) Return on Capital Employed (ROCE)

Net profit x 100
Capital employed

[Capital employed = Fixed Assets + Current Assets – Current Liabilities].

iv) Return on Proprietors fund
Profit after tax
Proprietor’s funds
v) Return on Capital
Profit after tax less pref. Dividend  x 100
Equity Share Capital
vi) Earnings per share [EPS]
Profit after tax less pref. Dividend
Total  No. of Equity Shares
vii) Dividend per share [DPS]
Total Dividend paid to ordinary shareholders
Number of ordinary shares
Shareholders, Investors
Management efficiency
i) Stock Turnover
Cost of goods sold
Average Stock
Management 5 to 6 times
ii) Debtors Turnover Ratio
Debtors + Bills receivable  x 365
Net Credit sales
Management 45 to 60 days
iii) Debtor’s Turnover Rate
Credit sales
Avg. Debtors + Bills receivable
Management 60 to 90 days
iv) Creditor’s Turnover Ratio
Creditors + Bills payable x 365
Credit purchases
v) Creditor’s Turnover Rate
Credit purchases
Average Creditors
vi) Operating Ratio

Operating Costs x 100
Net sales

[Operating Cost = Cost of goods sold + Operating expenses (viz. Administrative, selling & finance expenses)]

Number of times preference dividends covered by net profit Preference shareholders’ coverage ratio Net profit (after Interest & Tax but before equity dividend)
Preference Dividend
Preference shareholders
Number of times equity dividends covered by net profit Equity shareholder’s coverage ratio Net profit (after interest, tax & Pref. Dividend)
Equity Dividend
Equity shareholders
Number of times fixed interest covered by net profit Interest coverage  ratio Net profit (before Interest & Tax) (PBIT)
Fixed interests & charges
Debentureholders, Loan creditors
Relationship between net profit and total fixed charges Total coverage ratio

Net profit (before Interest & Tax) (PBIT)
Total fixed charges

Shareholders, investors, creditors, lenders
The idle capacity in the Organisation Fixed expenses to total cost ratio

Fixed expenses
Total cost

Management shareholders
Material consumption to sales Material consumption to sales ratio

Material consumption

Wages to sales Wages to sales ratio Wages
The future market price of a share Price earning ratio Market price of a share (MPS)
Earnings per share (EPS)
Investors, speculators


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